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Alexandra Rutherford

Associate Professor

Locations / Contact Info:

215, Behavioural Science - BSB
Keele Campus
Phone: 416 736 2100 Ext. 33230
Fax: 416 736 5814

Email address(es):

Web site(s):

Alexandra Rutherford
Psychology's Feminist Voices

Faculty & School/Dept.

Faculty of Health - Department of Psychology


PhD - 2001
York University

MA - 1995
York University

BSc - 1993
University of Toronto

Selected Publications


Fancher, R. & Rutherford, A. (2012). Pioneers of psychology, 4th Edition. New York: Norton.

Rutherford, A., Capdevila, R., Undurti, V., & Palmary, I. (Eds.). (2011). Handbook of international feminisms: Perspectives on psychology, women, culture, and rights. New York: Springer.

Rutherford, A. (2009). Beyond the box: B. F. Skinner’s technology of behavior from laboratory to life, 1950s-1970s. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.


Gul, P., Caplan, L., Korostoliev, A., Ball, L. C., Bazar, J., Rodkey, E., Young, J. L., Sheese, K., & Rutherford, A. (2013). Reconstructing the experiences of first generation women in Canadian psychology. Canadian Psychology, 54, 94- 104.

Ball, L. C., Bazar, J., MacKay, J., Rodkey, E., Rutherford, A. & Young, J. L. (2013). Using Psychology’s Feminist Voices in the classroom, Psychology of Women Quarterly, 37, 261-266. [authorship determined alphabetically]

MacKay, J. & Rutherford, A. (2012). Feminist women’s accounts of depression. Affilia, 27, 180-189. 

Held, L. & Rutherford, A. (2012). Can’t a mother sing the blues? Postpartum depression and the construction of motherhood in late 20thcentury America. History of Psychology, 15, 107-123.


Rutherford, A. (2011). Sexual violence against women: Putting rape research in context. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 35(2), 342-347.


Rutherford, A., Unger, R., & Cherry, F. (2011). Reclaiming SPSSI’s sociological past: Marie Jahoda and the immersion tradition in social psychology. Journal of Social Issues, 67(1), 42-58.

Other Research Outputs

Psychology's Feminist Voices

A multimedia internet archive showcasing the women of psychology's past and the diverse voices of contemporary feminist psychologists.
SPSSI Was There

This is an interactive timeline developed to convey the synergy between science and society through the history of the Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues. It features original text, photos, videos, and other archival material displaying the multiple ways social science has been deployed to address social and political concerns throughout the 20th and into the 21st century.



History of Science Society

Society for the History of Psychology

Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

Society for the Psychology of Women

Service/Community Activities

Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues

Center for the History of Psychology
Advisory Board Member

Society for the History of Psychology
2013 President


Distinguished Publication Award, Assoc. for Women in Psych. - 2012

Award of Distinction, Section on Women and Psychology, CPA - 2011

Fellow, Society for the Psychology of Women, APA - 2009

Fellow, Society for the Psychological Study of Social Issues - 2009

Fellow, Society for the History of Psychology, APA - 2008


Currently available to supervise graduate students: Yes

Currently taking on work-study students, Graduate Assistants or Volunteers: No

Available to supervise undergraduate thesis projects: No

Current Research

History of feminist psychology; history of women in psychology; history of behavioral psychology and behavior analysis; science popularization; history of psychological practices

Research Projects

Gendering Science: Psychologies of Gender and Gendered Psychologies in the 20th Century
In this project, I investigate how cultures of masculinity, constructions of gender, and the politics of knowledge have affected the scientific and social practices of 20th century psychologists as they sought to define not only the field's subject matter and methods, but the very kind of person a scientist should be. I examine how in the 1970s, sciences of men and women (i.e., the "psychology of men and masculinity" and the "psychology of women") became possible. Finally, I assess whether Psychological science has changed any of the gender ideologies that continue to operate both inside and outside science, and use this investigation to promote public discussion about the relationships among feminism, gender, and science in the 21st century.
Role: Principal Investigator
Year Funded: 2013
Duration: 3
Funded by: Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council

Curriculum Vitae (C.V. file):

CV of Alexandra Rutherford